动词的四种时态

动词的四种时态

  时态是一种动词形式,不同的时态用以表示不同的时间与方式。它是表示行为、动作、状态在各种时间条件下的动词形式,在英语中有16种时态。以下是小编为大家整理的动词的四种时态相关内容,仅供参考,希望能够帮助大家。

  动词的四种时态1

  (1)一般现在时:

  一般现在时的构成

  1. be动词:主语+be(am, is, are)+其它。如: I am a boy. 我是一个男孩。

  2. 行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。 如: We study English. 我们学习英语。

  当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。

  动词+s的变化规则

  1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks

  2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes

  3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

  (2)一般过去时:

  动词过去式详解 动词的过去式的构成规则有:

  A、规则动词

  ① 一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited

  ② 以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived , danced , used

  ③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改y为i再加ed(此类动词较少)如 study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play、stay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)

  ④ 双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped

  B、不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing – sang , eat – ate ,

  see – saw , have – had , do – did , go – went , take – took , buy – bought , get – got , read – read ,fly – flew , am/is – was ,

  are – were , say – said , leave – left , swim – swam , tell – told , draw – drew , come – came , lose – lost , find – found , drink – drank , hurt – hurt , feel – felt

  (3)一般将来时:

  基本结构:

  ①be going to + do;

  ②will+ do. be going to = will

  I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.

  (4)现在进行时: am,is,are+动词现在分词

  动词现在分词详解 动词的ing形式的构成规则:

  ① 一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如doing , going , working , singing , eating

  ② 以e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing ,如having , writing

  ③ 双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting

  动词的四种时态2

  一般现在时

  主要用来表示人、事物的现在状况和特点;表示经常或习惯性的动作,句子中常有often, always, from time to time 等时间状语; 表示客观规律和永恒真理等。

  例句:

  He usually goes to work at 7 o’clock every morning.

  She has a brother who lives in New York.

  The earth goes around the sun.

  Guangzhou is situated in the south of China.

  考点一:表示永恒的真理,即使出现在过去的语境中,仍用一般现在时。

  I learned that the earth goes around the sun when I was in primary

  school.

  考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替一般将来时;常用的引导词有:

  时间:when, until, after, before, as soon as, once, the moment/

  the minute, the day;

  条件:if, unless, provided.

  If he accepts the job, he will get more money soon.

  考点三:在make sure (certain), see to it, mind, care, matter+宾语从句中,从句用一般现在时代替一般将来时。

  So long as he works hard, I don’t mind when he finishes the experiment.

  只要他努力工作,我不介意他什么时候做完试验。

  考点四:在the more… the more… (越……越……) 的句型中, 若主句是一般将来时, 从句通常用一般现在时。

  The harder you study, the better results you will get.

  现在进行时

  表说话时或目前一段时间内正在进行的活动:表感情色彩,加强语气。与频率副词,如always,constantly,continually,again等连用表示说话人的某种感情色彩(赞叹、厌烦、埋怨等)。

  例句:

  We are having English class.

  The house is being built these days.

  The little boy is always making trouble.

  考点一:在时间状语或条件状语从句中表示将来正在进行的动作。

  Look out when you are crossing the street.

  Don't wake him up if he is still sleeping at 7 tomorrow morning.

  考点二: 表示在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作(这时多有表示将来的时间状语)。

  Marry is leaving on Friday.

  现在完成时

  表示动作发生在过去,完成在过去,但强调与现在情况仍有联系,其结果或影响仍存在。

  现在完成时有一些标志性的时间状语。

  考点一:for + 时间段;since + 时间点

  They have lived in Beijing for five years.

  They have lived in Beijing since 1995.

  I have learned English for ten years.

  考点二:常见的不确定的时间状语:lately; recently, just, already, yet,up to now; till now; so far, these days,

  Has it stopped raining yet ?

  考点三:在表示“最近几世纪/ 年/ 月以来……”时间状语中,谓语动词用现在完成时。

  in the past few years/months/weeks/days;over the past few years; during the last three months; for the last few centuries, through centuries; throughout history 等

  考点四:表示“第几次做某事,”或在 “It is the best (worst, most interesting ) +名词+that” 后面跟现在完成时。

  This is my first time that I have visited China.

  This is the most interesting film I have ever seen.

  That is the only book that he has written.

  一般过去时

  表在过去某个特定时间发生且完成的动作,或过去习惯性动作,不强调对现在的影响,只说明过去。常跟明确的过去时间连用,

  如:yesterday; last week; in 1945, at that time; once; during the war;

  before; a few days ago; when

  考点一:used to + do,表示过去经常但现在已不再维持的习惯动作。

  to为不定式,后接动词原形。

  be/become/get used to + doing,表示习惯于。

  He used to smoke a lot.

  He has got used to getting up early.

  考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替过去将来时。

  He promised to buy me a computer if he got a raise.

  过去进行时

  表示过去某个时间点或某段时间内正在发生的动作。

  例句:

  The boy was doing his homework when his father came back from

  work.

  He was taking a walk leisurely by the lake when he heard someone

  shouted for help.

  What were you doing at nine last night?

  The radio was being repaired when you called me.

  过去完成时

  表示过去某个时间之前已经完成的动作,即过去完成时的动作发生在“过去的过去”,句中有明显的参照动作或时间状语,这种时态从来不孤立使用

  ( before, after, by, up till)

  例句:

  There had been 25 parks in our city up till 2000.

  By the end of last term we had finished the book.

  They finished earlier than we had expected.

  考点一:用于hardly/scarcely…when; no sooner …than 句型中,主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。

  I had hardly finished my work when he came to see me.

  I had no sooner got into the room than it began to snow.

  No sooner had I arrived home than the telephone rang. (注意主谓倒装)

  考点二:表示“第几次做某事”,主句用过去时,从句用过去完成时。

  That was the second time that she had seen her grandfather.

  It was three years since we had parted.

  考点三:动词hope, expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose, plan用过去完成时,表示未实现的愿望、打算和意图。

  I had hoped that I could do the job.

  I had intended to see you but I was too busy.

  一般将来时

  表在将来某个时间会发生的动作或情况。常和tomorrow, next year, in 2008等表示将来的时间状语连用,其表现形式多达5种。

  例句:

  Beijing will host the 29th Olympic Games in 2008.

  考点一:一般将来时总是用在一些时间状语从句或条件状语从句的主句中

  We will begin our class as soon as the teacher comes.

  (主句用一般将来时,从句中一定要用一般现在时替代一般将来时。)

  考点二:某些表示短暂性动作的动词如arrive, come, go, leave, start等,用现在进行时形式表示将来。

  I am leaving for Beijing tomorrow.

  考点三:“祈使句 + and/or + 句子”,这种结构中and后面的句子谓语用一般将来时。

  Use your head and you will find a way.

  考点四:“am (is, are) going to + 动词原形”表示打算要做的事或可能要发生的事。

  “am (is, are) about to +动词原形”表示按照预定计划或打算准备着手进行的动作。

  “am (is, are) to + 动词原形”表示必须、必然或计划将要做的事。

  They are to be married in this May.

  将来进行时

  表将来某个时间正在发生的动作,或按计划一定会发生的事情。

  例句:

  I’ll be doing my homework this time tomorrow.

  The President will be meeting the foreign delegation at the airport.

  将来完成时

  表在将来某时刻之前业已完成的事情,时间状语非常明显。

  考点一:常用的时间状语一般用by+将来的时间。

  如:by the end of this year, by 8 o’clock this evening, by March next

  year以及由by the time…, before或when等引导的副词从句。

  By the end of next month, he will have traveled 1000 miles on foot.

  By the time you reach the station, the train will have left.

  By next Tuesday, I will have got ready for the exams.

  考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,将来完成时则由现在完成时表示。

  The children will do their homework the moment they have arrived

  back from school.

  动词的语态

  一般用于强调受者, 做题时谓语动词不再有名词或宾语。动词的语态一般不单独考,而是和时态、语气和非谓语动词一起考。

  考点一:不能用于被动语态的’动词和词组

  come true, consist of, take place, happen, become, rise, occur,

  belong, break out, appear, arrive, die, fall, last, exist, fail, succeed

  例句:

  It took place before liberation.

  考点二:下列动词的主动语态表示被动意义, 而且常与well, quite, easily, badly等副词连用。

  lock ( 锁 ) ; wash ( 洗 ); sell ( 卖 ); read ( 读 ); wear ( 穿 );

  blame (责备);ride (乘坐);write ( 写 );

  Glass breaks easily. 玻璃容易破碎。

  The car rides smoothly. 这车走起来很稳。

  The case locks easily. 这箱子很好锁。

  The book sells well. 这本书很畅销。

  考点三:一些常用经典被动句型:

  It is said…, It is reported…, It is widely believed…, It is expected…, It is estimated…,

  这些句子一般翻译为“据说……”,“人们认为……”,而 “以前人们认为……” 则应该说:It was believed…, It was thought …。

  动词的四种时态3

  不及物动词不能用于被动语态

  如appear,rise,die,happen,belong to,break out,take place等。

  Great changes have been taken place in my hometown.(误)

  Great changes have taken place in my hometown. (正)

  我们家乡发生了巨大的变化。

  表示状态的动词不用于被动语态

  如lack,fit,mean,hold,have,cost,contain,become,last,possess,consist of,look like等。

  The book costs 10 yuan.这本书花了10元钱。

  What’s become of her?她怎么了?

  主动形式表被动的几种情况

  (1)某些感官动词和系动词后加形容词可以表示被动意义,如look,smell,taste,feel,prove,wear,sound等。

  The flower smells sweet.花闻起来很香。

  The dish tastes delicious.菜吃起来非常可口。

  (2)在主语是物的句子里,有些动词的主动形式可以表示被动意义,这些词后常有副词修饰。常用的这类动词有

  sell,read,write,wear,wash,open,clean,cook,keep,cut,fill,blow,measure,lock,run,record,begin,shut等。

  This type of recorder sells well.

  这种型号的录音机销路很好。

  H e doesn’t photograph well.他不太上相。

  This kind of shirt cleans easily.这种衬衫容易洗干净。

  (3)动名词主动形式表示被动意义

  通常是事物(也可以是人)作want,need, require,deserve等动词的主语时,表示事物(或人)客观上“需要……”,用动名词一般式的主动形式作宾语表示被动意义。若动名词是不及物的,后面还应有相应的介词。

  The children need looking after.孩子们需要照看。

  这种用法还可把动名词改为动词不定式的被动形式来表被动。

  The children need to be looked after.

  (4)在作表语的某些形容词(easy,difficult,light,heavy,fit,good,safe,comfortable,dangerous,pleasant等)后作状语用的不定式用主动形式表示被动意义。

  She is easy to approach.她平易近人。

  The rock is hard to break.这块岩石很难打碎。

  不定式符号to在被动语态中不可省略

  在主动语态中,如果感官动词和使役动词后的宾语补足语是动词,这个动词前往往不用to,但在被动语态中要带to。

  I saw her pass by the window.我看见她从窗边经过。

  She was seen to pass by the window.她被看见从窗边经过。

  get (got)+过去分词也可构成被动语态

  get常同marry,beat,break,damage,tear,strike,hurt,paint,invite,repair,dress等动词的过去分词连用,构成被动语态。

  John and Jane got married last month.

  上个月,约翰和简结婚了。

  They got caught in the storm.他们碰上暴风雨了。

  1. Daniel’s family________their holiday in Huangsh an this time next week.

  A.are enjoying B.are to enjoy

  C.will enjoy D.will be enjoying

  【解析】句意为:丹尼尔一家人下个星期的这个时候肯定正在黄山度假。根据this time next week判断,选用将来进行时will be doing。

  【答案】 D

  2. My parents have promised to come to see me before I________for Africa.

  A.have left B.leave

  C.left D.will leave

  【解析】句意为:我父母已经答应在我去非洲之前来看我。不定式to come to see me表示的是将来动作,before引导的时间状语从句需用一般现在时。

  【答案】 B

  3.During the period of recent terrorist activities,people________not to touch any unattended bag.

  A.had always been warned

  B.were always being warned

  C.are always warning

  D.always warned

  【解析】句意为:在最近恐怖活动期间,人们总是在被警告不要碰任何无人照看的包。be always doing sth.总是做某事,表达某种抱怨、不满或赞许的情绪。人们是“被警告”,要用被动语态。

  【答案】 B

  4.The number of foreign students attending Chinese universities________rising steadily since 1997.

  A.is B.are

  C.has been D.have been

  【解析】句意为:在中国上大学的外国留学生的数量自1997年以来稳步上升。“the number of+n.”作主语时,其谓语动词用单数形式;由since 1997可知句子的时态应用现在完成时。

  【答案】 C

  5. —Ann is in hospital.

  —Oh,really?I________know.I________go and visit her.

  A.didn’t;am going to B.don’t;would

  C.don’t;will D.didn’t;will

  【解析】句意为:——Ann在住院。——哦,真的吗?我还不知道呢。我要去看望她。这里讲的I didn’t know指的是在对方还没告知Ann在住院这件事之前,我不知道,所以用一般过去时;第二个空用will指的是事先未经计划或安排的“意愿,打算”。

  【答案】 D

  6. —Hi,Torry,can I use your computer for a while this afternoon?

  —Sorry.________.

  A.It’s repaired

  B.It has been repaired

  C.It’s being repaired

  D.It had been repaired

  【解析】句意为:——嗨,Torry,今天下午我能用一会儿你的电脑吗?——真抱歉,电脑正在修理。该句强调的是此时电脑正被维修,需用现在进行时的被动语态。

  【答案】 C

  7.—What do you think of the movie?

  —It’s fantastic.The only pity is that I________the beginning of it.

  A.missed B.had missed

  C.miss D.would miss

  【解析】句意为:——你觉得这部电影怎么样?——太棒了。唯一可惜的是,我错过了开头部分。错过开头部分对于现在而言是发生在过去的事情,故选A。

  【答案】 A

  8. His sister left home in 1998,and________since.

  A.had not been heard of

  B.has not been heard of

  C.had not heard of

  D.has not heard of

  【解析】句意为:他妹妹在1998年离开家,从那以后就没了音讯。根据句意,指的是过去离开以后,到现在一直没音讯,故用现在完成时;hear of与his sister在本句中为被动关系,故用被动语态,所以选B。

  【答案】 B

  9. According to the literary review,Shakespeare________his characters live through their language in his plays.

  A.will make B.had made

  C.was making D.makes

  【解析】句意为:这篇文学评论说,莎士比亚使他剧中的人物通过语言鲜活起来。本句考查时态,当介绍一种理论时,常用一般现在时。

  【答案】 D

  10.Excuse me,Marcia,a reporter from Vanity Fair_______ _all day.Could you speak to her now?

  A.phones B.has phoned

  C.has been pho ning D.phoned

  【解析】句意为:打扰了,Marcia,一名Vanity Fair的记者打了一整天的电话。你现在可以接她的电话吗?根据句意和时间状语all day可知,此句需用现在完成进行时表示说话人的一种情感,如:不满,抱怨,责备等。注意,现在完成时表示到目前为止动作可能已经结束,侧重对现在产生的影响或结果。

  【答案】 C

  11.—Do you know if Terry will go camping this weekend?

  —Terry?Never!She________tents and fresh air!

  A.has hated B.hated

  C.will hate D.hates

  【解析】结合题意可知此处应用一般现在时表示她的习惯,她讨厌帐篷和新鲜的空气。

  【答案】 D

  12.—Got your driving license?

  —No.I________too busy to have enough practice,so I didn’t take the driving test last week.

  A.was B.am

  C.have been D.had been

  【解析】考查时态。根据句中so I didn’t take the driving test last week可知说话人过去一直很忙而没有进行足够的练习,以至于没有参加上周的驾照考试。发生在过去的动作“take”之前,因此应该用过去完成时。

  【答案】 D

  13.(2010届成都玉林中学月考)He will have learned English for eight years by the time he________from the university next year.

  A.will graduate B.will have graduated

  C.graduates D.is to graduate

  【解析】考查时态。by the time引导的是时间状语从句,而本句的主句是将来时,所以从句用一般现在时表示将来。

  【答案】 C

  14.I________in London for many years,but I’ve never regretted my final decision to move back to China.

  A.lived B.have lived

  C.had lived D.was living

  【解析】 “我在伦敦生活了很多年”只是对过去的一般叙述,过去的动作并没有对现在造成影响,故用一般过去时。

  【答案】 A

  15.—What’s your opinion about my suggestion?

  —Sorry,I________.Would you please say it again?

  A.hadn’t listened B.wouldn’t listen

  C.wasn’t listening D.didn’t listen

  【解析】考查时态。从本题的语境来看,说话人刚才没有在听对方的建议,因此,使用过去进行时,表示“听”的动作刚才没有在发生。

  【答案】 C

  16.Although many measures________,the world’s economy is still going down.

  A.were taken B.have been taken

  C.will be taken D.are taken

  【解析】考查动词的时态与语态。表示过去发生的动作对现在造成影响,所以用现在完成时;take与measures之间构成动宾关系,所以要用被动语态。

  【答案】 B

  17. Since the beginning of the vacation,I__ ____across the country,and my next stop is the Wuyi Mountains.

  A.had traveled B.will travel

  C.have been traveling D.was traveling

  【解析】考查动词的时态。该题的时间状语为since+过去的时间点,结合后面的“my next stop is the Wuyi Mountains”可以看出这里应该用现在完成进行时,表示从过去开始的动作一直持续到现在,并可能持续下去。

  【答案】 C

  18.Right now the government is trying to control the number of people who________by H1N1 flu.

  A.have been affected B.have affected

  C.are affected D.affect

  【解析】考查动词的时态语态。句意为:政府正在试图控制感染H1N1流感的人的数量。人们被感染流感,用sb.be affected by sth.结构,这里说的是现在的一般情况,故用一般现在时的被动语态。

  【答案】 C

  19.(2010年长春第一次调研)—I saw Lucy and her boyfriend in the park at nine yesterday evening.

  —Impossible.She________the Internet with me i n my home then.

  A.surfed B.had surfed

  C.would surf D.was surfing

  【解析】考查时态。根据对话内容可知,昨天晚上九点时Lucy正在和我一起上网,因此用过去进行时。

  【答案】 D

  20.(2010年上海春招)The employees________that they should renew their contracts within a week.

  A.advise B.have advised

  C.are advised D.had been advised

  【解析】考查动词的语态。语意:(公司)建议员工在一周内续签合同。根据语意,The employees与advise为动宾关系,所以应该用被动结构,故选C项。

  【答案】 C

  21.(2010届抚顺一中第一次同步考试)With the help of high technologh,more and more new substances________in the past years.

  A.discovered

  B.have discovered

  C.had been discovered

  D.have been discovered

  【解析】考查时态和语态。由句中的时间状语in the past years可知,这里应用现在完成时;句子的主语new substances与discover之间为动宾关系,故选D项。

  【答案】 D

  22.(2010届成都联考)—Look!Everything here is under construction.

  —What’s the pretty small house that________for?

  A.is being built B.has been built

  C.is built D.is building

  【解析】考查时态和语态。语意表明从句中用现在进行时,名词house是动词build的承受者,所以谓语用现在进行时的被动语态。第二句语意为:正在修建的那座漂亮的小房子是用来做什么的?

  【答案】 A

  23.(2010届江西高安中学月考)—Did you have any trouble finding your way in Shanghai?

  —Yes,I tried to find my way to the airport but________.

  A.has been lost B.get lost

  C.lost D.got lost

  【解析】前面的问句以及tried暗示时态应为一般过去时,因此选got lost。

  【答案】 D

  24.(2010届皖南八校联考)We’ve been told the good news,but when and where to go for the exciting paid vacation________yet.

  A.are not discussed

  B.have not been discussed

  C.is not being discussed

  D.has not been discussed

  【解析】后一分句的主语为when and where to go for the exciting paid vacation,表示的是一件事,谓语动词用单数形式,由此排除A、B两项。根据句末的yet可知应该用完成时,即这件事还没有被讨论。

  【答案】 D

  25.(2010年西安质量检测)We haven’t moved into the new office building—it________right now.

  A.is decorating B.has been decorated

  C.is being decorated D.has been decorating

  【解析】考查动词时态、语态。根据题干中前面一句话的时态及后一句话中的时间状语right now可知,应用现在进行时;又依据语意可知,房子正在(被)装修,因此选C。

  【答案】 C

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