英语宾语从句解析

英语宾语从句解析

  “宾语从句是名词性从句的一种。在主从复合句中充当宾语,位于及物动词、介词或复合谓语之后的从句称为宾语从句。下面由小编告诉大家什么叫宾语从句,希望可以给你带来帮助!

英语宾语从句解析

  宾语从句

  1.语序

  无论主句是陈述句还是疑问句,宾语从句都必须使用陈述语序,即“主句+连词+宾语从句(主语+谓语+……)”句式。根据连接词在从句中所担任的不同成分,可分为以下四种:

  1)连接词+谓语。连接词在从句中作主语。常见的连接词有: who,what,which等。如:

  Could you tell me who knows the answer,please?你能告诉我谁知道答案吗?

  The small children don't know what is in their stockings.这些小孩子不知道袜子里有什么东西?

  2)连接词+名词+谓语。连接词在从句中作主语的定语。常见的连接词有:whose,what,which,how many,how much等。如:

  He asked whose handwriting was the best in our class.他问我们班上谁的书法最好。

  The teacher asked us how many people there were in the room.老师问我们房间里有多少人。

  3)连接词+主语+谓语。连接词在从句中作宾语、状语或表语。常见的连接词有:who(m),what,which,how many,how much, when,why,how,where,if /whether(在句中不充当任何成分)等。如:

  He hasn't decided if he'll go on a trip to Wuxi.他还没决定是否去无锡旅行。

  Could you tell me what I should do with the money ?你能告诉我我如何处理这笔钱吗?

  4)连接词+名词+主语+谓语。连接词在从句中作宾语或表语的定语。常见的连接词有:what,which,how many,how much,how等。如:

  Do you know which class he is in ?你知道他在哪个班吗?

  She asked me if I knew whose pen it was.她问我是否知道这是谁的钢笔。

  2.连接词

  1)当由陈述句充当宾语从句时,用that引导,that无词义,在口语或非正式文体中常省略。如:

  He said that he could finish his work before supper.他说他会在晚饭前完成工作。

  2)当由一般疑问句充当宾语从句时,用if或whether引导,意为“是否”。如:

  I don't know if /whether he still lives here after so many years.我不知道这么多年后他是否还住在这儿。

  但在下列情况下只能用whether:

  ①在具有选择意义,又有or或or not时,尤其是直接与or not连用时,往往用whether(if…or not也可以使用)。如:

  Let me know whether /if he will come or not.(=Let me know whether or not he will come)让我知道他是否能来。

  I don't know whether /if he does any washing or not.(=I don't know whether or not he does any washing.)我不知道他洗不洗衣服。

  I wonder whether we stay or whether wego.我不知道我们是去还是留。

  ②在介词之后用whether。如:

  I'm interested in whether he likes English.我关心的是他是否喜欢英语。

  We're thinking about whether we can finish the work on time.我们正在考虑是否能按时完成这项工作。

  I worry about whether I hurt her feelings.我担心是否伤了她的感情。

  ③在不定式前用whether。如:

  He hasn't decided whether to visit the old man.他尚未决定是否拜访那位老人。

  I don't know whether to go.我不知去否。

  He hasn't decided whether to go by bus or by train.他还未决定是乘公共汽车去还是坐火车去。

  ④whether置于句首时,不能换用if。如:

  Whether this is true or not,I can't say.这是否真的我说不上来。

  ⑤引导主语从句和表语从句时宜用whether。如:

  Whether she will come or not is still a question.她是否能来还是个问题。

  The question is whether we can catch the bus.问题是我们能否赶上公共汽车。

  ⑥若用if会引起歧义时,则用whether。如:

  Please let me know if you like the book.可理解为:

  a.Please let me know whether you like the book.请告诉我你是否喜欢这本书。

  b.If you like the book,please let me know.你如果喜欢这本书,请告诉我。

  3)如果宾语从句原来是特殊疑问句,只需用原来的特殊疑问词引导。如:

  Could you tell me why you were late for the meeting this morning?你能告诉我今天早上你为什么开会迟到吗?

  3.时态

  含宾语从句的复合句,主、从句谓语动词的时态呼应应包括以下三点内容:

  1)如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时,从句的谓语动词可根据需要,选用相应的任何时态。如:

  I don't know when he will come back.我不知道他将何时回来。

  He tells me that his sister came back yesterday.他告诉我他姐姐昨天回来了。

  2)如果主句的谓语动词是过去时,宾语从句的.谓语动词只可根据需要,选用过去时态即一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时或过去完成时的某一种形式。如:

  ①The children didn't know who he was.孩子们不知道他是谁。

  ②He asked his father how it happened.他问他父亲这件事是如何发生的。

  3)如果宾语从句所表示的是客观事实、普遍真理、自然现象或习惯性动作等,不管主句用什么时态,从句时态都用一般现在时。如:

  The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.老师说地球绕着太阳转。

  4.注意:

  if和when既可以引导宾语从句,也可以引导状语从句,应注意它们在两种从句中的意思和用法的不同。if和when引导宾语从句时,分别意为“是否”和“何时”,其时态应和主句时态相呼应;它们引导状语从句时,意思分别为“如果,假如”和“当……时候”,当主句时态是一般将来时时,其时态用一般现在时。它们常常放在含有状语从句和宾语从句的题干中进行综合考查。如:

  —Do you know when he will come back tomorrow ?你知道他明天什么时候回来吗?

  —Sorry,I don't know.When he comes back,I'll tell you.对不起,不知道。当他回来了,我将告诉你。

  —I don't know if he will come.我不知道他是否会来。

  —He will come if it doesn't rain.如果不下雨,他会来的。

  英语宾语从句知识点

  一.宾语从句的定义

  置于动词、介词等词性后面起宾语作用的从句叫宾语从句。宾语从句的语序必须是陈述语序。谓语动词、介词、动词不定式,v.-ing形式后面都能带宾语从句。有些形容词(afraid,sure,glad等)之后也可以带宾语从句。

  二.宾语从句中引导词的用法

  在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有:

  连词:that (that 常可省略),whether, if 。代词:who, whose, what ,which 。副词:when ,where, how, why 等。(一)that引导的宾语从句(在非正式场合that可以省略)

  可跟that从句做宾语的动词有:say, think, insist, wish, hope, demand, imagine, wonder, know, suppose, see, believe, agree, admit, deny, expect, explain, order, command, feel, dream, suggest, hear, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, propose, declare, report等。

  例句:The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets.

  注意事项:当主句谓语动词是 think, believe, suppose, expect 等词,而宾语从句的意思是否定时,常把否定转移至主句表示。

  例句:I don't think it is right for him to treat you like that.

  在以下情况中that不能省略

  1当句中的动词后接多于两个由that引导的宾语从句时,第一个that可省,但后面的that不可省。

  例句:He said (that) you were too young to understand the matter and that he was asked not to tell you.

  2当主句的谓语动词与that宾语从句之间有插入语时,that一般不可省。

  例句:Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap.

  3当that从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that不可省。

  例句:I can't tell him that his mother died.

  注意事项:许多带复合宾语的句子,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用it作形式宾语。

  例句:I find it necessary that we should do the homework on time.

  (二)由whether,if 引导的宾语从句

  由whether(if)引导的宾语从句,实际上是一般疑问句演变而来的。意思是"是否"。宾语从句要用陈述句语序。一般说来,在宾语从句中whether与if可以互换使用,但在特殊情况下if与whether是不能互换的。

  例句:I wonder whether(if) they will come to our party.

  只能用whether,不能用if引导的宾语从句

  在带to的不定式前

  例句:We decided whether to walk there.

  1在介词的后面 例句:I'm thinking of whether we should go to see the film.

  2在动词后面的宾语从句 例句:We discussed whether we had a sports meeting next week

  3直接与or not连用时 例句:I can't say whether or not thet can come on time.

  只能用if不能用whether引导的宾语从句

  1 if引导条件状语从句,意为"如果" 例句:The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny.

  2 if引导否定概念的宾语从句时 例句:He asked if I didn't come to school yesterday.

  3 引导状语从句even if(即使)和as if(好象)时 例句:He talks as if he has known all about it.

  (三)连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句

  这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的,宾语从句要用陈述句语序。用于这种结构的动词常常是:see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise等。

  英语中的连接代词有:who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。

  例句:Can you tell me whom you are waiting for?

  英语中的连接副词有:when,where,why,how,在句中担任状语的成分。

  例句:None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.

  三.宾语从句的语序 宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序即:连接代词/副词+主语+谓语+其他成分。例句如下:1 I don't know what they are looking for. 2 Could you tell me when the train will leave?

  3 Can you imagine what kind of man he is?

  四.宾语从句的时态

  1主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。例句:The headmaster hopes everything goes well.

  2主句是过去时态,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。

  例句:She was sorry that she hadn't finished her work on time.

  3 当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。

  例句:The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound.

  五.宾语从句的特点

  1宾语从句可以作及物动词、介词及形容词的宾语。 2 宾语从句的语序一律用陈述句语序。

  3连接词that引导宾语从句在句中无词义,不充当句子成份,多数情况下可以省略。

  4whether 和 if 都可引导宾语从句,但 whether后可紧跟or not;whether从句可作介词的宾语。

  5 如果从句太长,可以用形式宾语it.

  介词的宾语从句

  用wh-类的介词宾语从句

  We are talking about whether we admit students into our club.

  我们正在讨论是否让学生加入我们的俱乐部.

  The new book is about how Shenzhou 6 manned spaceship was sent up into space.

  这本新书是关于神州6号载人航天飞船是如何升入太空的.

  用that,if引导的介词宾语从句

  有时候except,but,besides三个介词后可见到that引导的宾语从句

  I know nothing about my new neighbor except that he used to work with a company.

  对于我的新邻居我只知道他曾在一家公司上班,其他一无所知.

  形容词的宾语从句

  常用来引导宾语从句的形容词有: sure,certain,glad,please,happy,sorry,afraid,satisfied,surprised

  I am sure I will pass the exam.

  我确信我会通过考试.

  I am sorry that I have troubled you so long.

  很抱歉我这么长时间在打扰你.

  He is glad that Li Ming went to see him when he was ill.

  他很高兴在他生病的时候李明能去看望他.

  英语宾语从句的三个难点

  一、宾语从句与形式宾语it

  当宾语从句后跟有宾语补足语时,通常在宾语从句处使用形式宾语it,而将真正的宾语从句移至句末。如:

  I think it best that you should stay here. 我认为你最好住这儿。

  He hasnt made it known when he is going to get married. 他还没宣布他何时结婚。

  二、连词that的省略问题

  引导宾语从句的连词that 通常可以省略。如:

  She said (that) she would come to the meeting. 她说过要来开会的。

  I promise you (that)I will be there. 我答应你我会去。

  但是,有时为了强调,that引导的宾语从句可位于句首,此时that不可省略。如:

  That she is a good girl I know. 她是一个好姑娘,我是知道的。

  三、宾语从句与否定转移

  当动词think, believe, suppose, expect, imagine 后接一个表示否定意义的宾语从句时,其否定通常转移到主句。如:

  I dont suppose that it is true. 我认为那不是真的。

  I dont imagine that he will come. 我想他不会来的。

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